Advanced Materials series - Will materials which heal themselves transform maintenance?
Intrinsic self-healing materials involve the use of specialised polymers, which are intrinsically able to heal through reversible reactions and supramolecular bonding activity after an application of energy via heat, light, or other sources. Extrinsic self-healing materials, such as capsule systems and vascular systems are also common. These systems function by releasing a healing agent from reservoirs within the material, either via microcapsules for the former or interconnected tubes for the latter, which break open under stress. These agents react to the new conditions to restore the integrity of the material. Self-healing properties have been applied to materials such as concretes, metals, ceramics, and elastomers.