Usually, drivers and signallers communicate over the GSM-R network using the train cab radio. Sometimes the GSM-R network or train cab radio cannot be used. There are alternatives but these needed to be assessed.

There had already been a modelling report about the failure of GSM-R. Some recent changes showed the need for a new modelling of driver-signaller communication and train protection. 

What changes make new modelling necessary?

These changes are: