Influencing attitudes and activities leading to trespass.
Can be applied in relation to problems at specific locations where trespass has occurred on railway property. This can include widespread implementation across a route or countrywide.
By whom? - Specialist staff from Network Rail or TOCs / FOCs, working in conjunction with BTP and criminal justice system.
Applicability / suitability for trespass types
Where there has been graffiti or damage to part of the railway infrastructure and those involved have been identified and potentially subject to legal action.
Trespasser type = Young people, adults, commuters.
Trespass events = Convenience, Fare evasion, Theft, Antisocial behaviour, Graffiti, Hangout, Recreation.
Observed behaviours = Crossing tracks, entry or exiting platform end or gaps in boundary, damage to facilities or equipment, items laid on track, damage to fencing, evidence of graffiti, signs of drug use, jumping down onto track.
Potential Motivations = Shorten distance, perceiving risk to be low, unaware of rules, personal financial gain, self-expression and boredom, moral judgement and reasoning, lack of self-control, peer pressure, anti-social feelings, artistic expression, recognition, rebellion, territorial, seeking seclusion, risk / thrill seeking, exploration.
Several studies suggest that sanctions lead to a drop-in trespass more effectively than education or rewarding non-trespass behaviour.
This intervention is reliant on being able to catch and prosecute trespassers.
May influence different types if trespass in different ways e.g. unlikely to be an effective deterrent against criminal behaviour.
May be some immediate effects with people receiving on the spot fines, but there may be a delay in any effects linked to awaiting prosecutions. There may be a period of time before others recognise the risk of being caught and appreciating the likelihood and impacts of any penalties.
Likely to need continued efforts for this to be durable as any change in behaviour may not be maintained if the risk of being caught and being sanctioned does not continue.
Factors influencing effectiveness
Can be limited by external support (e.g. limited numbers of prosecutions)
Will likely need to be integrated with other prevention measures (e.g. signs, publicity, campaigns, security patrols).
People need a high level of certainty that they will be caught and fined for trespass and the costs will be high.
How to apply or implement, including dependencies
Should be used when other interventions have been explored (for example, improved education or provision of an easier, authorised, walking route).
Use in combination with education and awareness, monitoring and surveillance and signage.
Dependent on having the resources to catch trespassers and support from BTP and criminal justice system.
For the industry, but fines and sanctions for trespass may need to be enforced by the CPS.