Efforts to support decarbonisation in rail encompass a wide range of activities, such as new components and assets that use power; changing operational practices; and designing and configuring the infrastructure that delivers power. 

Individual components and subsystems can deliver benefits which can be amplified when coupled at a system level to maximise energy efficiency. Therefore, system-level computer simulation presents a cost-effective opportunity for the rail industry to accurately predict interactions, which can be used to improve design and inform operational decision making.