All of the worked examples are structured according to the Taking Safe Decisions risk management framework, shown below.


Worked examples

  • The removal of fire extinguishers describes a change in risk control that no longer provides a safety benefit. It illustrates a relatively simple decision made largely on the basis of qualitative analysis and expert judgement.
  • The provision of signal post telephones when adopting a Global System for Mobile Communications in the Railways (GSM-R) illustrates the complexities of decisions that involve multiple organisations. It discusses the psychology of decision making, in particular the importance of framing the decision in the right way.
  • The formation of a close organisational alliance between an infrastructure manager and a railway undertaking shows how structured workshops can be used to evaluate risk and identify safety measures when making an organisational change.
  • The final drive failures example illustrates how risk assessment and safety monitoring can be combined to support the iterative design and implementation of safety measures. It also demonstrates how a company is going beyond its legal safety requirements to reduce its reputational risk.
  • The Class 156 train fire and equipment modification example describes how a train operating company discovered a problem with potential for fire incidents on its Class 156 fleet. This led to an investigation and consideration of options for change to address the safety concern.
  • The dynamic decision response: the recovering from a major incident example describes the live decision-making processes involved in operating a station in degraded mode following a major incident.


We would be grateful for your feedback. If you would like to provide comments or have suggestions for further worked examples please email